SIPP Synthetic Beta v6.02 SSBv6 TBD Virtual RDC Cornell NSF-Census Research Network Cornell NCRN Project November 12, 2015 Cornell Institute for Social and Economic Research (CISER), Cornell University, Ithaca NY The Comprehensive Extensible Data Documentation and Access Repository 2.7 The Comprehensive Extensible Data Documentation and Access Repository 2.6 The Comprehensive Extensible Data Documentation and Access Repository 2.6 National Science Foundation (NSF) 1131848 NSF-Census Research Network - Cornell node Cornell Institute for Social and Economic Research Labor Dynamics Institute 2015 2015-01-14

Lori B. Reeder and Martha Stinson and Kelly E. Trageser and Lars Vilhuber. Codebook for the SIPP Synthetic Beta 6.0.2 [Codebook file]. Cornell Institute for Social and Economic Research and Labor Dynamics Institute [distributor]. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2015

SSB_codebook_v6-0-beta SSBv6
SSB_codebook_v6-0-beta 6.0 United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. Social Security Administration. Internal Revenue Service. Cornell University. Labor Dynamics Institute. United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. none Washington, DC, USA National Science Foundation 1042181 Labor Dynamics Institute United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. 5 June 2014 6.0

U.S. Census Bureau. SIPP Synthetic Beta: Version 6.0.2 [Computer file]. Washington DC; Cornell University, Synthetic Data Server [distributor], Ithaca, NY, 2015

SIPP

The SIPP Synthetic Beta (SSB) is a Census Bureau product that integrates person-level micro-data from a household survey with administrative tax and benefit data. These data link respondents from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to Social Security Administration (SSA)/Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Form W-2 records and SSA records of retirement and disability benefit receipt, and were produced by Census Bureau staff economists and statisticians in collaboration with researchers at Cornell University, the SSA and the IRS. The purpose of the SSB is to provide access to linked data that are usually not publicly available due to confidentiality concerns. To overcome these concerns, Census has synthesized, or modeled, all the variables in a way that changes the record of each individual in a manner designed to preserve the underlying covariate relationships between the variables. The only variables that were not altered by the synthesis process and still contain their original values are gender and a link to the first reported marital partner in the survey. Eight SIPP panels (1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008) form the basis for the SSB, with a large subset of variables available across all the panels selected for inclusion and harmonization across the years. Administrative data were added and some editing was done to correct for logical inconsistencies in the IRS/SSA earnings and benefits data.

Users should be aware that time-varying variable arrays are collapsed in this codebook to a placeholder variable. Thus,afdc_Mstands in for the 48 variablesafdc_1--afdc_48.

1951-2007 1990-2004 United States of America State Level Person Civilian non-institutionalized population living in the United States mixed survey and administrative record data (partially synthetic)
U.S. Census Bureau

SIPP Panels (1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008)

SSA records of retirement and disability benefit receipt (1984-2012)

IRS Form W-2 records on respondents (1951-2011)

Creation of the SSB:

The SSB is created from several data sources. The survey data are drawn from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): the 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, and 2004 panels. The administrative data are drawn from the following SSA files: the Master Earnings File, the Master Beneficiary Records (MBR), the Supplemental Security Records (SSR), the 831 Disability File (F831), and the Payment History Update System (PHUS).

The creation of the SSB begins with the construction of the Gold Standard File (GSF). To construct the GSF, a set of variables from the 1990-2004 SIPP panels are standardized to produce consistent measures across panels. The SIPP respondent identifiers are mapped to Social Security Numbers (SSB) using the Census Bureau's erson Information Validation System (PVS). Using the list of SSN's for the sample is SIPP respondents, SSA creates Summary Earnings Records (SER) and Detailed Earnings Record (DER) extracts from the Master Earnings File. SSA also creates extracts from the four benefit files (MBR, SSR, F831, and PHUS) from the corresponding master files. Using the mapping between the SIPP identifiers and SSN's, Census then links these extracts to the SIPP data. The GSF consists of person-level research variables created from these linked data.

The next step in the creation of the SSB is to impute missing values in the GSF multiple times. This process results in four files (implicates) referred to as the Completed Data implicates. Each of these implicates contains original GSF values where non-missing and imputed values where the original value is missing. The imputations across Completed Data implicates are independent of each other.

The Completed Data implicates from the basis of the data synthesis that produces the SSB files. From each Completed Data file, four synthetic datasets are created by synthesizing variables conditional on the values in the Completed Data file. Thus, the SSB consists of sixteen files (implicates). All but the following data are synthesized in the SSB implicates: gender, OASDI benefit type, and spouse link (specific variables described in the data items section below). Detailed documentation of the process of data synthesis is available in the publication "Final Report to the Social Security Administration on the SIPP/SSA/IRS Public Use File Project" athttp://www2.vrdc.cornell.edu/news/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/ssafinal.pdf.

The Completed Data and SSB implicates need not all have the same number of records. In order to be included in a Completed Data or SSB implicate, an individual's (possibly imputed or synthesized) age must be at least fifteen years as of January 1 in the first year of his or her SIPP panel. The interaction between this restriction and the variation in imputed and synthesized ages across implicates causes the exclusion of a slightly different set of individuals from each Completed Data and SSB implicate.

Researchers interested in using the SSB can submit an application to the Census Bureau. The application form and instructions can be downloaded fromhttp://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/sipp/methodology/sipp-synthetic-beta-data-product.html. Applications will be judged solely of feasibility of the proposed project (i.e., that the necessary variables are available on the SSB). Once an application has been accepted, the new user will be given an account on a server where the data can be accessed and analyzed. The SSB files have been cleared by the Census Bureau Disclosure Review Board, SSA, and IRS for use by individuals without Census Bureau Special Sworn Status and outside of Census Bureau facilities.

The data can only be used on the VirtualRDC Synthetic Data Server at Cornell University. While no SSB data downloads are permitted at this time, users do not have to operate behind the Census Bureau firewall to access this server.

sehsd.synthetic.data.use.list@census.gov

We request that researchers who publish results from analyses done using these data cite the SSB as their data source and acknowledge the use of the SDS server at Cornell and the support of Census staff in running any validation programs. These citations will help ensure continued funding for the SDS server and the creation of the Gold Standard File and the SSB.

Suggested acknowledgement:

This analysis was first performed using the SIPP Synthetic Beta (SSB) on the Synthetic Data Server housed at Cornell University which is funded by NSF Grants SES-1042181 and BCS-0941226, and through a grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. These data are public use and may be accessed by researchers outside secure Census facilities. For more information, visit http://www.census.gov/sipp/synth_data.html. Final results for this paper were obtained from a validation analysis conducted by Census Bureau staff using the SIPP Completed Gold Standard Files and the programs written by this author and originally run on the SSB. The validation analysis does not imply endorsement by the Census Bureau of any methods, results, opinions, or views presented in this paper.

You will need to use an NX client to logon to the Synthetic Data Server. Information about how to set-up your account and use the Synthetic Data Servers will come to you directly from the staff that maintains this server, after approval of your access by Census staff.

The data synthesis process employed by Census to protect the linked data from the risk of disclosing the identity of individuals is relatively new and substantially changes both the survey and administrative data. The intent of the modeling done as part of the synthesis is to preserve relationships among variables that are of interest to researchers while ensuring that personally identifiable information is not revealed to the data user. It has not been feasible to ensure accuracy by comparing every relationship among SSB variables with the corresponding relationship in the underlying confidential micro-data. Hence, we strongly urge researchers not to publish results produced from the SSB without first requesting that Census validate these results with confidential data housed in a secure environment at the Census Bureau. Census will perform this validation free of charge to researchers, as resources permit and according to the protocol established by the three agencies involved and outlined below. Without validation of results, Census, SSA, and IRS make no guarantee of the validity of the SSB for any research purpose. Seehttp://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/sipp/methodology/sipp-synthetic-beta-data-product.htmlfor validation conditions.

Using SSB:

The GSF and Completed Data implicates contain personally identifiable information protected by Titles 13, 26, and 42 and cannot be accessed without Census Bureau Special Sworn Status nor outside of Census Bureau facilities. The SSB files, however, have been cleared by the Census Bureau Disclosure Review Board, SSA, and IRS for use by individuals without Census Bureau Special Sworn Status and outside of Census Bureau facilities.

Researchers interested in using the SSB can submit an application to the Census Bureau. The application form and instructions can be downloaded fromhttp://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/sipp/methodology/sipp-synthetic-beta-data-product.html. Applications will be judged solely on feasability of the proposed project (i.e., that the necessary variables are available on the SSB). Once an application has been accepted, the new user will be given an account on a server where the data can be accessed and analyzed. While no SSB data downloads are permitted at this time, users do not have to operate behind the Census Bureau firewall to access this server.

The SSB is designed to be analytically valid in that sense that point estimates should be unbiased and estimated variances should lead to inferences similar to those that would be drawn from an identical analysis on the Completed Data implicates. Initial tests of analytic validity of the SSB have been promising. All SSB users are invited to help further test the analytic validity of the SSB by submitting programs used to analyze the SSB to be run on the Completed Data and/or Gold Standard files. Users need only inform Census Bureau staff of the location on the server of such programs and work with Census Bureau staff to ensure that the programs run without error. Census Bureau staff will run the programs on the confidential data and release to the user resulting output that are cleared for release by the Census Bureau Disclosure Review Board. In order to evaluate the effects of the data synthesis separate from the effect of imputing missing data, comparisons should be made between results from the SSB and the Completed Data. To evaluate the effects of missing data imputation, comparisons should be made between results from the Completed Data and the Gold Standard.

When analyzing the SSB, users should account for the multiple imputation aspect of the SSB by averaging statistics of interests across all sixteen implicates. Variance measures should be created following the appropriate multiple imputation formulae as described in the documentUsing the SIPP Synthetic Beta for Analysis.

Protocol for Validation of Results:

Census will validate results obtained from the SSB on the internal, confidential version of these data (Completed Gold Standard Files). Users who wish to obtain validated results should follow the protocol outlined here. The restricted access site will provide SAS and Stata analysis software and a computing environment similar to the one used to analyze the confidential Completed Gold Standard data on Census Bureau internal computers. Researchers should follow the Census Bureau programming requirements described in SSB Validation Request Guidelines to ensure that the programs will successfully transfer to internal Census computers for validation. Researchers should plan to share their results and programs from the synthetic data analysis with Census, ORES/SSA and SOI/IRS. After programs have successfully run without error on the synthetic data, researchers may request that Census run these programs on the Completed Gold Standard Files. Only programs successfully run without error on the SDS will be eligible to be run on the confidential data by Census staff. Any programs that produce errors on the Completed Gold Standard Files will be returned to users for correction. Once an analysis has been repeated on the Completed Gold Standard File, the results will be reviewed by Census staff for disclosure concerns. Researchers should familiarize themselves with standard Census disclosure rules for outside projects (See theRDC Researcher Handbookhere) and should fill out the appropriate memo documenting the requested output (seeRDC Disclosure Request Memo). Data products and output approved by Census staff will be released to the users, ORES/SSA, and SOI/IRS. The validation process can be accomplished in as little as one week for simple results that are generated by clean code and have no disclosure issues. However if the code does not run properly, the sample sizes are too small, or the researcher does not accurately fill out the disclosure memo, the process can take much longer. Census makes no guarantee on the length of time between submission of programs and the release of results from the confidential data. For more information about the validation process, including advice on how to make the process go smoothly and quickly, please seeSSB Validation Request Guidelines.

L. B. Reeder, M. Stinson, K. E. Trageser, and L. Vilhuber, "Codebook for the SIPP Synthetic Beta v5.1 [Codebook file]," {Cornell Institute for Social and Economic Research} and {Labor Dynamics Institute} [distributor]. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, DDI-C document , 2014. Available athttp://www2.ncrn.cornell.edu/ced2ar-web/codebooks/ssb/v/v51.

U.S. Census Bureau, "Disclosure Review Board Memo: Second Request for Release of SIPP Synthetic Beta Version 6.0," U.S. Census Bureau 2015.

Available athttp://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/programs-surveys/sipp/methodology/DRBMemoTablesVersion2SSBv6_0.pdf

J. M. Abowd, M. Stinson, and G. Benedetto, "Final Report to the Social Security Administration on the SIPP/SSA/IRS Public Use File Project," U.S. Census Bureau 2006. Available athttps://www2.vrdc.cornell.edu/news/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/ssafinal.pdf.

ssb_v6_0_2_syntheticK_M.sas7bdat 783,781 1,186 SAS ssb_v6_0_2_syntheticK_M.dta 783,781 1,186 Stata Demographic Variables The variables in this section are all drawn from the SIPP and represent demographic information gathered by the survey at a specific point in time. Entries for individual variables describe the exact SIPP source variable and the reference point in time. Economic Variables The variables in this section are all drawn from the SIPP and represent economic information gathered by the survey at a specific point in time. Entries for individual variables describe the exact SIPP source variable and the reference point in time. Marital History Variables Marital history is presented as two arrays of 8 elements describing up to 4 marriages. This history retains at most 4 dates of origin and the associated 4 dates of dissolution (whether due to divorce or death), if applicable, along with the corresponding type of event (marriage, divorce, or widowhood) for each SIPP respondent. The wave 2 Marital History topical module provides the majority of this information for up to 3 marriages. If an individual had more than 3 marriages, no dates for those marriages between the second and most recent are collected during the topical module interview. For individuals who participate in the topical module, we supplement this information by searching for new marriages or the termination of an existing marriage utilizing our knowledge of monthly marital status covering the period of the panel beyond wave 2. We rely exclusively on the complete set of monthly marital status indicators for people who do not participate in the topical module. The two marital history arrays, one comprised of dates and the other of event types, are edited to ensure internal consistency for linked spouses. Missing event dates or reasons are acquired from the spouse who has provided this information during a SIPP interview. This means that in the case of a deceased individual, the surviving spouse's report of widowhood is transferred to their former spouse. Likewise, for respondents who leave the household due to divorce (and are no longer interviewed by the SIPP), the spouse remaining in the household supplies the details regarding marital dissolution for both. It is possible for beginning or ending date information to not identically match for the linked spouses. In this case, we evaluate whether topical module details were supplied. If both spouses participated in the topical module, the data are considered as likely to be reliable from either individual. We examine whether the first spouse's beginning date occurs before the previous marriage end date for either spouse while the second spouse's beginning date occurs after the previous marriage end date of both spouses. If so, then the second spouse's beginning date replaces the first spouse's beginning date. Alternatively, if the reverse is true, then the first spouse's beginning date replaces the second spouse's beginning date. When no obvious conflicts with the date of the start of the current marriage and the date of termination of the previous marriages of either spouse exist, then a random number is used to determine which spouse's information to retain. A similar algorithm is implemented to resolve issues relating to non-matching ending dates of the linked spouses (in this case, each spouse's subsequent marital start date is taken into consideration). When disagreements between the beginning or ending dates occur and only one of the two spouses participated in the topical module, the participating spouse's information is considered to be more reliable (provided that the adoption of the date presents no conflicts with previous or subsequent marital events for either spouse). In the absence of topical module participation for both spouses, a random number is used to determine which spouse's information to retain. Any persisting conflicts between dates of marital events are remedied by utilizing a random number to determine the most reasonable event date for the pair. As a final step, the cleaned file is carefully reviewed once more to ensure internal consistency. Benefits Variables

Variables in this section are taken from the 831 Disability File (F831) that tracks all Title II (SSDI) and Title XVI (SSI) applications for disability payments from 1990 onwards. Using the F831 data, we created one record per person that reports number of filings, plus filing and decision dates, and the result of determination for the first, second, and most recent applications listed on the file.

We created separate variables for different application types (Title II-SSDI/Title XVI-SSI) so in total there is information on a maximum of 6 applications. We retain records for primary applicants only. Differences may exist between the disability variables on the MBR and the F831 due to differing lengths of the time series, as well as to the fact that research version of the MBR used to create the Gold Standard recorded a maximum of two events (e.g., events occurring between the initial and most recent entitlement may be censored).

MBR/PHUS Variables

The Master Benefits Records (MBR) is SSA's main file to track who is receiving Old Age Survivor and Disability (OASDI) benefits, the reason for receipt, and the monthly benefit amounts payable to the individual. The MBR also contains records detailing applications to Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI), including dates of disability adjudication, date of disability entitlement, and date of disability onset as well as date an individual ceased receiving a benefit (if applicable).

The Payment History Update System (PHUS) contains actual payments delivered to OASDI beneficiaries. The data from the PHUS may differ from what are contained on the MBR due to discrepancies between the timing of SSA awarded amounts and the actual payments made to participants. This situation would be expected to affect disability cases more than aged cases because it takes more time to establish eligibility to receive disability.

Individuals are eligible to receive benefits due to their own earnings history and age, as well as due to a spouse's earnings history and age. In this section retirement and disability are "own" benefits while aged spouse, widowed spouse, and other are "spouse" benefits. The age requirements for receiving each type of benefit are as follows:

- Retire - minimum age 62 (reduced benefit), full retirement age (full benefit)

- Disability - under age 65 or full retirement age, whichever is greater; at full retirement age, these benefits convert to retirement.

- Aged Spouse - minimum age 62(reduced benefit), full retirement age (full benefit), spouse must be retired or disabled

- Widowed Spouse - minimum age 60(reduced benefit), full retirement age (full benefit), spouse must be deceased

- Other - no age requirements

Until the year 2000, the full retirement age was 65. From 2000 to 2022, the full retirement age is increasing by 2 months each year so that by 2022 the full retirement age will be 67.

The benefits reported in this section are total benefits received at a point in time. The MBR research extract provided by SSA to create the Gold Standard contains information about different reasons for receiving benefits but does not always allow the amount due to each reason to be accurately separated from the total. Hence we have elected to report total benefits at a point in time and researchers should be careful to note that when an individual is receiving both own retirement and aged spouse benefits, the amounts listed for each benefit type will be redundant, i.e. there is really only one total amount and two reasons for receiving it.

SSA calculates benefits based on an individual's lifetime earnings history following rules which they publish in "Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin," available for each tax year on the Social Security website, www.ssa.gov.

Aged Spouse Benefit

These variables pertain to benefits awarded to aged spouses (Initial Date of Entitlement Type of Benefit=3).

Disability Benefit

These variables pertain to social security disability insurance (SSDI) benefits awarded due to own disability. These variables provide details for up to 4 applications, including whether there was an application, whether that application led to a decision that the individual was entitled to a benefit, the date of disability entitlement, the date of disability onset, the disability adjudication date of the application, the monthly amount of SSDI benefits received, whether and when an individual ceased receiving a benefit, as well as diagnosis group. The aforementioned variables are derived from the Master Beneficiary Record (MBR).

The total monthly benefit and the date of when that benefit was first received, both recorded in the Payment History Update System (PHUS), are also included. The PHUS contains actual payments delivered to SSDI beneficiaries. The data from the PHUS may differ from what are contained on the MBR due to discrepancies between the timing of SSA awarded amounts and the actual payments made to participants.

Other Benefit These variables pertain to benefits awarded to spouses caring for minor children (TOB=4), widows(ers) caring for minor children (TOB=6), disabled widows(ers) (TOB=7), and adults disabled in childhood (TOB=8). Retirement Benefit These variables pertain to benefits awarded at time of own retirement (TOB=1). Widowed Spouse Benefit These variables pertain to benefits awarded to widowed spouses (TOB=5). Supplemental Security Record Variables The Supplemental Security Records (SSR) is SSA's main file to track who is receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits and the monthly benefit amounts payable. SSI benefits are paid to elderly, blind, or disabled individuals who fall below certain income threshholds. Eligibility and federal payment standards are uniform across all states but states have the option to supplement federal payments. The payment included here is the total of both federal and state SSI payments. Geographic Variables These variables are included for internal use purposes and describe the geography of the address where the SIPP household was first interviewed. These variables are panel specific, with the year subscript at the end of the variable name representing the source panel. Individuals will have non-missing geography information only for the variables that correspond to their SIPP panels. Identifiers

Identifiers for respondent, respondent's spouse, panel, rotation group, start and end date of SIPP panel, and the first full year in a panel.

IRS/SSA Variables The Census Bureau sent a list of validated SSNs from the seven included SIPP panels to SSA and extracts from the Master Earnings File (Summary and Detailed Earnings Records), Master Beneficiary Record, Supplemental Security Record, 831 Disability File, and Payment History Update System were created. The variables from these files that are included in the SSB are described below. Not all SIPP respondents have linkages to SSA/IRS administrative data, including: those who refused to provide their SSN; those whose SSNs were not validated; and those with valid SSNs who never worked, and never applied for benefits or received benefits. In the Gold Standard, individuals without a validated SSN or without SSA/IRS administrative records had missing data for all SSA/IRS-derived variables described below. Among these people, those respondents without a validated SSN had all administrative data imputed as part of the data completion process. Hence in the completed Gold Standard and the synthetic data, only individuals with no work or benefit history have zero earnings and missing benefits. Detailed Earnings Record Variables The Detailed Earnings Records (DER) contains historical earnings reports for each person and job held from 1978 onwards. These reports include self-employment income. Earnings are not capped at the taxable maximum. For each tax year, we summed DER information for each person across all jobs and self-employment to create a total earnings amount. Summary Earnings Record Variables The SSA/IRS Summary Earnings Records (SER) contain historical person-level earnings data. In addition to an array of annual FICA-taxed earnings (1951-2006) that are capped at the FICA taxable maximum, the SER provides information regarding quarters of covered work. Quarters of covered work are utilized by SSA to determine eligibility for participation in its old age, survivors, and disability insurance (OASDI) programs. Variables are in array form, i.e., in the form VARNAME_YYYY where YYYY is the year the variable refers to. Fertility Variables Number of children and dates of birth. Lifespan Variables Birth and Death dates. SIPP Arrays This section contains variables that are repeated over time, reflecting the panel nature of the SIPP. For these time series variables, individuals will only have values for the months and years in which they participated in a SIPP panel. We also include only years fully covered by one of the SIPP panels. Hence there are no data for 1995 or 2000 since neither of these years were fully covered by a panel. (VARNAME_YYYYM[M], YYYY=1990-2006, M[M]=1 to 12) Health Insurance Variables Incluces health coverage, by month, and whether that health-insurance was employer-provided. Income Variables

These variables include SIPP survey-reported income.

Labor Force Variables Variables about participation in the labor force: hours and weeks worked Education Variables

SIPP survey variables related to educational attainment, enrollment, and field of study.

Disability Variables

SIPP survey variables detailing whether a respondent has a work-limiting or work-preventing disability.

First full calendar year observed in panel

This is the first year in the panel for which every rotation group is in scope to have all the monthly SIPP variables from January to December.

%12.0g
Respondent has a valid Social Security Number

This variable indicates whether a respondent successfully linked to a valid Social Security Number.

0 Did not link to a Social Security Number 1 Successfully linked to a Social Security Number %12.0g
Indicator for receipt of AFDC or TANF benefits This variable indicates that a respondent received public assistance payments (AFDC or TANF) in month M. M goes from 1 to 48 and represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. The variable comes from the core file. I20REC1-I20REC4 in 1984; R20 in the 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993 panels; ER20 in the 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008 panels. 0 Did not receive public assistance payment 1 Received public assistance payment Amount of AFDC received This variable is the amount of public assistance payments (AFDC or TANF) that a respondent received month M. M goes from 1 to 48 and represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. The variable comes from the core file. I20AMT1-I20AMT4 in 1984; S20AMT in the 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993 panels; T20AMT in the 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008 panels. %12.0g Date of Birth This variable was taken from a hierarchy of SSA sources instead of the respondent-provided value in the SIPP. Date of birth was selected from the first non-missing value in the following files: (i) SSA's Master Benefits Record (MBR) file, (ii) SSA's Supplemental Security Record (SSR) file, and (iii) the Census Bureau's Person Characteristic File (PCF) whose main input is the SSA Numident file. Thus, this variable is administrative and sometimes differs from the birth date reported in the SIPP survey itself. When missing due to the lack of a validated SSN for the SIPP respondent, date of birth was imputed using date of birth from the Census-internal version of the SIPP as a predictor variable. We chose the administrative source for two reasons. First, the administrative birth date was more consistent with the MBR and DER data and provided more accurate ages for first OASDI benefit receipt and first W-2 or self-employment earnings. Second, the differences between the administrative birth date and the birth date reported in the survey helped to increase the difficulty of re-identifying a record in the original SIPP public use data using information from a record in the synthetic data, thus improving the confidentiality protections. This variable is coded as a SAS date variable. This format gives the number of days between the date of birth and January 1, 1960. An individual born on January 1, 1959 would have birthdate=-365 and an individual born on January 1, 1961 would have birthdate=365. %12.0g Currently Enrolled in College Indicates whether an individual is enrolled in college at the time of the SIPP education history topical module and has not finished his/her education. This variable can be used to differentiate between individuals who completed some college and stopped school and those who have finished some college but not yet stopped attending school. Education variables come from the following waves, by panel: Wave 3 in 1984 (determined from the year began attending college or university and last year student was at a college or university: TM8026 & TM8040); Wave 2 in the 1990-1993 panels (TM8420, TM8426, TM8440, TM8442); Wave 2 in the 1996 panel (TLASTCOL, TCOLLSTR, TVOCYR, TASSOCYR, TBACHYR); Wave 2 in the 2001-2008 panels (ELASTCOL, ECOLLSTR, EVOCYR, EASSOCYR, EBACHYR). 0 Not currently enrolled in college 1 Currently enrolled in college Sysmiss %12.0g Currently Enrolled in HS (or less) Indicates whether an individual is attending high school. This variable can be used to differentiate between people who do not have a high school degree (educ_5cat=1) but are still attending school and those who do not have a high school degree but are not currently attending high school. Researchers should be careful to consider the age of the individual when using current_enroll_hs and educ_5cat. Individuals who are still young children at the time of the SIPP will have educ_5cat=1 and current_enroll_hs=0 because they are still attending preschool or elementary school. Older individuals with these values for the education variables can be classified as not having finished high school. Education variables come from the following waves, by panel: Wave 2 in the 1990-1993 panels (TM8400, TM8404, TM8406); Wave 2 in the 1996 panel (TLSTSCHL, THSYR); Wave 2 in the 1996-2008 panels (ELSTSCHL, EHSYR). Note: this information is not available in the 1984 panel. 1 Currently enrolled in high school Sysmiss %12.0g Defined Benefit Pension Plan Indicator for whether SIPP respondent was enrolled in a defined benefit pension plan at the time of pension topical module in his/her SIPP panel. Waves for this topical module, by panel, are as follows: Wave 4 from the 1984, 1990, & 1992 panels; Wave 9 from the 1993 panel; Wave 7 from the 1991, 1996, 2001, & 2004 panels; Wave 3 from the 2008 panel. 0 No defined benefit pension plan 1 Had defined benefit pension plan Sysmiss %12.0g Defined Contribution Pension Plan Indicator for whether the individual was enrolled in a defined contribution pension plan at the time of the pension topical module in his/her SIPP panel. Waves for this topical module, by panel, are as follows: Wave 4 from the 1984, 1990, & 1992 panels; Wave 9 from the 1993 panel; Wave 7 from the 1991, 1996, 2001, & 2004 panels; Wave 3 from the 2008 panel. 0 No defined contribution pension plan 1 Had defined contribution pension plan Sysmiss %12.0g Date of Death Date of death from administrative data. This variable is obtained using a hierarchy of administrative sources: (i) SSA's MBR file, (ii) SSA's SSR file, and (iii) the Census PCF with death information coming from the SSA Numident and Master Death Files. This variable is coded as a SAS date variable. This format gives the number of days between the date of birth and January 1, 1960. An individual born on January 1, 1959 would have birthdate=-365 and an individual born on January 1, 1961 would have birthdate=365. %12.0g DER: Deferred FICA Deferred earnings from jobs covered by FICA tax; summed across all employers in the DER to give a person-level total for each year. The practice of withholding deferred wages from employee pay and reporting this on W-2 forms began in 1987. However in the SSB, we restrict the time series for this variable to be 1990-2011. This decision is due to the fact that so few people had deferred wages between 1987 and 1989 that we could not reliably synthesize these variables. DER: Deferred Non-FICA Deferred earnings from jobs NOT covered by FICA tax; summed across all employers in the DER to give a person-level total for each year. The practice of withholding deferred wages from employee pay and reporting this on W-2 forms began in 1987. However in the SSB, we restrict the time series for this variable to be 1990-2011. This decision is due to the fact that so few people had deferred wages between 1987 and 1989 that we could not reliably synthesize these variables. Disability Prevents Work - (CORE or TM)

This variable indicates that a person had a work-preventing disability. This information comes from the disability topical module in the 1984, 1990-1993 panels. In the 1996-2008 panels, this variable is created from a combination of reports in the core and the disability topical module. We look across all waves of the panel and at the topical module and if ever there is a report of a work-preventing disability, we set this indicator to 1. The universe for this variable is all individuals who were at least age 15 and no older than age 70 by the end of the panel. The following disability variables from the core were used: 1996, 2001, 2004, Wave 6 in 2008 (EJOBCANT).

0 No 1 Yes %12.0g
Work Limiting Disability - (CORE or TM) This variable indicates that a person had a work-limiting disability. This variable is created from a combination of reports in the core and the disability topical module. We look across all waves of the panel and at the topical module and if ever there is a report of a work-limiting disability, we set this indicator to 1. The universe for this variable is all individuals who were at least age 15 and no older than age 70 by the end of the panel. The following disability variables from the core were used: 1984, 1990-1993 (DISAB); 1996, 2001, 2004, & 2008 (EDISABL). Disability topical modules were asked in the following waves, by panel: Wave 3 in 1984 (TM8450, TM8452); Wave 3 in 1990, 1991, & 1993 (TM8918, TM8920); Wave 6 in 1992 (TM8918, TM8920); Wave 5 in 1996, 2001, & 2004 (EJOBDIF); Wave 6 in 2008 (EJOBDIF). 0 No 1 Yes %12.0g Education Category This variable was created from data collected by the education history topical module and represents the highest level of education achieved at that point in time. The universe for this variables is all individuals who were age 15 at the beginning of their SIPP panel. This topical module was asked in the following waves, by panel: Wave 3 in 1984 panel (TM8024, TM8028); Wave 2 in the 1990-1993 panels (TM8400, TM8408, TM8416, TM8422); Wave 2 in the 1996 & 2001 panels (EATTAIN); in the 2004-2008 panels (EEDUCATE). 1 No high school degree 2 High school degree 3 Some college 4 College degree 5 Graduate degree %12.0g Field of Bachelors Degree

Field of bachelors degree as reported in the education history topical module. Universe if individuals who were age 15 by beginning of their SIPP panel and who had a bachelors degree. This topical module was asked in the following waves, by panel: Wave 3 in 1984 panel (TM8038); Wave 2 in the 1990-1993 panels (TM8428, TM8436); Wave 2 in the 1996-2008 panels (EBACHFLD). Categories vary for the 1996-2008 panels and for the 1990-1993 panels.

0 Unknown 1 Agriculture/Forestry 2 Art/Architecture (1996-2004 panels); Biology (1990-1993 panels) 3 Business/Management 4 Communications (1996-2004 panels); Economics (1990-1993 panels) 5 Computer and Information Sciences (1996-2004 panels); Education (1990-1993 panels) 6 Education (1996-2004 panels); Engineering (1990-1993 panels) 7 Engineering (1996-2004 panels); English/Journalism (1990-1993 panels) 8 English/Literature (1996-2004 panels); Home Economics (1990-1993 panels) 9 Foreign Language (1996-2004 panels); Law (1990-1993 panels) 11 Health Sciences (1996-2004 panels); Liberal Arts/Humanities (including arts, architecture, music, languages, philosophy) (1990-1993 panels) 11 Liberal Arts/Humanities (1996-2004 panels); Mathematics/Statistics (1990-1993 panels) 12 Mathematics/Statistics (1996-2004 panels); Medicine (1990-1993 panels) 13 Nature Sciences (Biological and Physical) (1996-2004 panels); Nursing, Pharmacy, Health Technologies (1990-1993) 14 Philosophy/Religion/Theology (1996-2004 panels); Physical or Earth Sciences (1990-1993 panels) 15 Pre-Professional (1996-2004 panels); Police Science or Law Enforcement (1990-1993 panels) 16 Psychology 17 Social Sciences/History (1996-2004 panels); Religion/Theology (1990-1993 panels) 18 Other (1996-2004 panels); Social Sciences (1990-1993 panels) 19 Vocational or Technical Studies (1990-1993 panels) 20 Other (1990-1993 panels) Sysmiss %12.0g
Administrative birthdate of first born child This variable contains the administrative birthdate for the first biological child. The universe for this variable is all women between the ages of 15 and 65 at the time of the fertility history topical module. This variable was created by first looking for biological children on the SIPP household roster and choosing the birthdate of the oldest child (if no children were found, the value was set to missing). The total number of biological children reported on the roster (could possibly be zero) was then compared to the woman's report in her fertility history about the number of children born to her. If the number born to her was larger, first_admin_birthdate was set to missing and imputed using the woman's report of the first year she gave birth as a predictor variable. This process allowed us to create a fertility history that was consistent with the children reported on the roster and their administrative birthdates but still handle cases where older children or all children lived outside the household. %12.0g Flag: Existence of Date of Death Flag to indicate that this respondent died after being interviewed and before 2011. This flag indicates the existence of a valid value for deathdate. 0 Death date does not exist, respondent did not die during this interval 1 Death date exists, respondent died during this interval %12.0g Flag: 4 or More Marriages Flag for existence of a marriage for which date is unknown because it was not collected in the SIPP. The marital history topical module asks about a person's first and second marriages and then his or her most recent marriage. If any other marriages occurred after the second but before the most recent, no information about this marriage is collected. However, individuals are categorized as having 1, 2, 3, or more than 3 marriages. We create flag_mar4t to identify individuals who reported more than 3 marriages. 0 No additional marriage occurred with unknown date 1 An additional marriage occurred but with unknown date Sysmiss %12.0g Indicator for receipt of SNAP/Food Stamps This variable indicates that a respondent received food stamps/SNAP benefits in month M. M goes from 1 to 48 and represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. The variable comes from the core file. I27REC1-I27REC4 in 1984; R27 in the 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993 panels; ER27 in the 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008 panels. 0 Did not receive food stamps/SNAP benefits 1 Received food stamps/SNAP benefits Foreign Born Immigrant Status, born in country other than U.S.Taken from Wave 8 topical module in the 1984 panel and Wave 2 topical module in the 1990-1993, 2001, 2004, & 2008 panels (TM8128, TM8166, TM8174 in the 1984 panel; TM8730, TM8734, TM8709 in the 1990-1993 panels; eprstate, ebrstate and rcitiznt in the 1996 panel; eprstate, ebrstate and tcitiznt 2001 panel; eprstate, ebrstate, citiz, and ebornus in the 2004 & 2008 panels). 0 Born in U.S. 1 Born in country other than U.S. %12.0g SNAP/Food Stamps Amount Received This variable is the amount of food stamps/SNAP benefits that a respondent received in month M. M goes from 1 to 48 and represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. The variable comes from the core file. I27AMT1-I27AMT4 in 1984; S27AMT in the 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993 panels; T27AMT in the 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008 panels. %12.0g Health Insurance Coverage A variable in this array indicates whether an individual was covered by health insurance during month M. M represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. Only the first 24 months of the individual's SIPP panel are in universe. A later release of these data will add months after 24 for longer SIPP panels. Months that are outside the time frame covered by an individual's SIPP panel will always be missing and out of universe. Health insurance coverage is derived from the following variables: HIIND in the 1984 & 1990-1993 panels; EHIMTH in the 1996-2008 panels. 0 Respondent did not have health insurance coverage during this month 1 Respondent had health insurance coverage during this month Sysmiss Health Insurance Coverage from Employer A variable in this array indicates whether an individual was covered by employer-provided health insurance during month M. M represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. Only the first 24 months of the individual's SIPP panel are in universe. A later release of these data will add months after 24 for longer SIPP panels. Months that are outside the time frame covered by an individual's SIPP panel will always be missing and out of universe. Employer-provided health insurance coverage is derived from the following variables: HISRC in the 1990-1993 panels; EHEMPLY in the 1996-2008 panels. Note: this question was not included in the 1984 panel. 0 Respondent did not have employer-provided health insurance 1 Respondent had employer-provided health insurance Sysmiss Hispanic In the 1984 & 1990-1993 SIPP panels, a value for ethnicity is included on each wave file. Thus, there are actually as many ethnicity variables as there are waves of the survey and some changes occur across waves as a result of data collection error. Ethnicity is chosen by creating an array of variables ethncty1-ethncty{max number of waves} and choosing the first non-missing value. Thus, ethnicity comes from the first wave in which the individual was interviewed instead of from a fixed point in the survey. Respondents are coded as Hispanic if they have an ethnicity code between 14 and 20. In the 1996-2008 panels, the longitudinally-edited version contains only one value for ethnicity across all waves (eorigin) and this value is used. Respondents are coded as Hispanic if they have an ethnicity code between 20 and 28 in 1996 and 2001, or if they have an ethnicity code of 1 in 2004 & 2008. 0 Non-hispanic 1 Hispanic %12.0g Home Equity Home equity value as reported in the wealth topical module, collected in the following waves, by panel: Wave 4 in the 1984 (HHTHEQ) & 1990-1993 (HH_THEQ) panels ; Wave 3 in 1996, 2001, & 2004 (THHTHEQ) panels; Wave 4 in 2008 panel (THHTHEQ). %12.0g Industry Category (4) Industry is a characteristic of an individual's job and hence varies over time. There are industry values reported for (potentially) two jobs in each wave of the survey. Industry is chosen by summing earnings associated with the array of variables ws1ind1-ws1ind{max number of waves} and ws2ind1-ws2ind{max number of waves} in the 1984,1990-1993 panels, and ejbind1_1-ejbind1_{max number of waves) and ejbind2_1-ejbind2_{max number of waves} in the 1996-2008 panels and choosing the industry associated with the greatest total earnings. Thus industry is the industry from which greatest earnings are derived in the survey. 1 Manufacturing 2 Wholesale/retail trade 3 FIRE, services, public administration, military 4 Agriculture, mining, construction, transportation, communications, and public utilities Sysmiss %12.0g Flag: Industry Assigned This variable indicates whether an individual has a valid industry from a job held during the survey and governs the ind_4cat variable. If ind_exist=1, the ind_4cat will have a value between 1 and 4. 0 No, last worked 1984 or earlier, or no valid industry reported 1 Yes %12.0g Initial SIPP Weight INITWGT contains the base survey weight for the sample unit to which the sample person belongs. This base survey weight is the inverse of the probability of selection for the sample unit, adjusted only for unit non-response and, in rare instances, for sampled units that turned out to represent more than one separate residence. Unlike final panel and calendar year weights, INITWGT includes no adjustment for attrition of households from SIPP panels and are not adjusted at the person level to match any external controls. SSB users can utilize the weights to produce estimates that account for idiosyncratic probability of selection of sample units and for unit-nonresponse. Estimates for each SIPP panel, using these weights, become representative of the U.S. non-instutionalized population as of the beginning of the panel. For instance, using INITWGT, the distribution of calendar year 2010 administrative earnings for sample persons in the SSB from the 1984 SIPP panel would be representative of the U.S. population as of calendar year 1984. %12.0g Administrative birthdate of last born child This variable contains the administrative birthdate for the last biological child. The universe for this variable is all women between the ages of 15 and 65 at the time of the fertility history topical module. This variable was created by first looking for biological children on the SIPP household roster and choosing the birthdate of the youngest child (if no children were found, the value was set to missing). The total number of biological children reported on the roster (could possibly be zero) was then compared to the woman's report in her fertility history about the number of children born to her. If the number born to her was larger, last_admin_birthdate was set to missing and imputed using the woman's report of the last year she gave birth as a predictor variable. This process allowed us to create a fertility history that was consistent with the children reported on the roster and their administrative birthdates but still handle cases where older children or all children lived outside the household. %12.0g On Layoff (Without Pay) Indicator that individual was on layoff without pay in month M. M represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. Only the first 24 months of the individual's SIPP panel are in universe. A later release of these data will add months after 24 for longer SIPP panels. Months that are outside the time frame covered by an individual's SIPP panel will always be missing and out of universe. The variables from which layoff without pay are derived are the following: SC1098 in 1984; REASAB in the 1990-1993 panels; ELAYOFF in the 1996-2008 panels. 0 No 1 Yes %12.0g Left a Job Because of Layoff The variable indicates that the individual left a job due to a layoff in month M. M represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. Only the first 24 months of the individual's SIPP panel are in universe. A later release of these data will add months after 24 for longer SIPP panels. Months that are outside the time frame covered by an individual's SIPP panel will always be missing and out of universe. Note that these questions were not asked in the 1984 panel. 0 No 1 Yes %12.0g Life Insurance Ownership This variable indicates that the individual owns a life insurance plan at the time of the assets topical module. This module was asked in the following waves, by panel: Wave 4 in the 1984 & 1990-1993 panels (TM8308); Wave 3 in the 1996 panel (EALLI); wave 3 in the 2001 (EALLIE); wave 3 in 2004 (EALLIE); and wave 4 in 2008 (EALLIE). 0 No 1 Yes %12.0g Male In the Census-internal SIPP panels, a value for sex is included on each wave file. Thus, there are actually as many sex variables as there are waves of the survey and some changes occur across waves as a result of data collection error. Sex is selected from the array of variables sex1-sex{max number of waves} in which the wave corresponds either to the month in which marital status is first observed (for those without spouses during the course of the SIPP) or to the month in which the respondent's spouse is assigned. As with the SIPP, the SSB does not allow same-sex couples to report being married and hence gender must be chosen to be consistent with the spouse's gender instead of from a fixed point in the survey. Thus when a spouse is never assigned, an individual's gender comes from the first wave where they report being not married. For individuals who are assigned a spouse, gender comes from the first wave where they reveal their spouse. This indicator variable is set to 1 if the individual was male and was created from the original categorical sex variable for analytic convenience.This variable is unsynthesized on the SSB and is never missing so there are no imputed values in the Completed Data. 0 Female 1 Male %12.0g This variable tells whether a person is male or female MBR: receive aged spouse benefit This variable indicates that the individual received OASDI benefits as an aged spouse. A person is entitled to aged spouse benefits if they are at least 62 years old and are married to a worker who is receiving retirement or disability benefits. Like benefits received by a person due to their own eligibility, spouse benefits are reduced if the individual elects to receive them before the full retirement age. Unmarried divorced spouses of retirement age who were married to the worker for at least 10 years are also eligible for aged spouse benefits. 0 No 1 Yes %12.0g MBR: startdate of benefit Date when the person first began receiving aged spouse benefits, conditional on having ever received this type of benefit. MBR: total monthly benefit Total monthly amount of benefits received at beginning of aged spouse benefit entitlement. In most cases this amount is from the same month as in MBR_agedsp_benefit_stdate. However, if data for that month were missing in the MBR extract, we searched through the monthly benefit array to find the first positive value. This amount can be a combination of payments due to multiple entitlement reasons (i.e. dual entitlement). MBR: receive retirement benefit This variable indicates receipt of an OASDI retirement benefit. Individuals are eligible for retirement payments if they are at least 62 years old and have 40 quarters of coverage. Since 1978, workers earn one quarter of coverage for a set amount of FICA-covered annual earnings and can earn up to 4 quarters per year. The amount of earnings needed to receive credit for a quarter varies by year and was $1,120 in 2011. Benefits are reduced if the worker elects to receive them before full retirement age. 0 No 1 Yes %12.0g MBR: retirement benefit start date This variable contains the date when the individual first began receiving retirement benefits and is stored as a SAS date variable. Benefits always begin on the first day of the month. Individuals born before 1920 were eligible to receive their first payment in the month they turned 62 unless their birthday was the first day of the month, in which case they were eligible for their first payment the month before they turned 62. Individuals born on January 1 were eligible to receive their first payment in the December before they turned 62. Individuals born in 1920 or after were eligible to receive their first payment the month after they turned 62 unless their birthday was the first or second day of the month, in which case they were eligible for their first payment in the month they turned 62. %12.0g MBR: total monthly benefit This variable provides the monthly amount of retirement benefits received by the individual. Benefit amounts are calculated based on the worker's average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). See the Social Security Annual Statistical Supplement for details on how benefit calculations are performed. This benefit amount is the total amount paid in the first month of own retirement benefits receipt. If the respondent was dually entitled in this month, this benefit amount reflects the total payment made (i.e. the sum of the amounts due to each type of benefit). For example if a person received own and aged spouse retirement benefits, this benefit amount would be the sum of those two benefits. %12.0g MBR SSDI: Application submitted

This set of variables (mbr_ssdi_applied_1mbr_ssdi_applied_4 where K=1 to 4) indicate whether there is a corresponding record of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) application in the Master Benefit Record (MBR). Details for up to four SSDI applications are maintained. If the individual applied more than four times, then details for only a subset of the applications are recorded in this data, with priority given to approved and more recent applications. The first recorded application, the last recorded application, the first recorded application during the SIPP interview period, and the last recorded application during the SIPP interview period are always kept. For example, if a person applied for SSDI three times, this will be reflected in the following way: mbr_ssdi_applied_1 = 1, mbr_ssdi_applied_2 = 1, mbr_ssdi_applied_3 = 1, mbr_ssdi_applied_4 = 0.

0 Did not apply for SSDI 1 Applied for SSDI %12.0g
MBR SSDI: Benefit amount This variable provides the monthly amount of SSDI benefits received by the individual for each of four applications. See mbr_ssdi_applied_k for details on how individual applications are recorded on this file. Benefit amounts are calculated based on the worker's average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). See the Social Security Annual Statistical Supplement for details on how benefit calculations are performed. This benefit amount is the total amount paid in the first month of disability benefits receipt. %12.0g MBR SSDI: Benefits ceased This set of variables records whether the individual ever ceased receiving previously granted benefits under each SSDI application record (mbr_ssdi_ceased_k = 1). See mbr_ssdi_applied_k for details on how individual applications are recorded on this file. 0 Did not cease receiving benefit 1 Ceased receiving benefit %12.0g MBR SSDI: Date of disability benefits cessation If the individual ever ceased receiving previously granted SSDI benefits, this variable records the date that those benefits ceased. This date is stored as a SAS date variable. See mbr_ssdi_applied_k for details on how individual applications are recorded on this file. %12.0g MBR SSDI: Date of disability onset The date of disability onset for the associated SSDI application. This date is stored as a SAS date variable. See mbr_ssdi_applied_k for details on how individual applications are recorded on this file. %12.0g MBR SSDI: Diagnosis group

This variable contains the diagnostic group for the SSDI recipient's primary code for mental or physical disability used in the medical determination of the individual's eligibility for disability benefits.

1 Diseases of the blood 2 Circulatory system 3 Congenital anomalies 4 Digestive system 5 Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases 6 Genitourinary system 7 Infectious and parasitic diseases 8 Injuries 9 Mental disorders 10 Mental retardation 11 Musculoskeletal system 12 Neoplasms 13 Nervous system and sense organs 14 Respiratory system 15 Skin and subcutaneous tissue 16 Other or unknown %12.0g
MBR SSDI: Date of entitlement to disability The date at which the disabled individual became entitled to disability insurance benefits for the associated SSDI application. This date is stored as a SAS date variable. See mbr_ssdi_applied_k for details on how individual applications are recorded on this file. %12.0g MBR SSDI: Disability adjudication date The date of the disability-adjudication decision for the associated SSDI application. This date is stored as a SAS date variable. See mbr_ssdi_applied_k for details on how individual applications are recorded on this file. %12.0g MBR SSDI: Application entitles to disability An indicator for whether the individual was determined to be entitled to SSDI benefits under the associated application . See mbr_ssdi_applied_k for details on how individual applications are recorded on this file. %12.0g MBR: receive widowed spouse benefit This variable indicates that the individual received OASDI benefits as a widowed spouse. A person is entitled to widowed spouse benefits if they are at least 60 years old and are the widow(-er) of a worker who was fully insured (i.e. had the required number of quarters of coverage for his/her age). Like benefits received by a person due to their own eligibility, widow benefits are reduced if the individual elects to receive them before the full retirement age. Surviving divorced spouses who were married to the worker for at least ten years and did not remarry before age 60 are also eligible for widow benefits. 0 No 1 Yes %12.0g MBR: widowed spouse benefit start date This variable contains the date when the individual first began receiving widowed spouse benefits and is stored as a SAS date variable. Benefits always begin on the first day of the month. Individuals were eligible to receive their first payment in the month they turned 60 unless their birthday was the first day of the month, in which case they were eligible for their first payment the month before they turned 60. Individuals born on January 1 were eligible to receive their first payment in the December before they turned 60.Start dates range from January 1962 to December 2012. %12.0g MBR: total monthly benefit This variable provides the monthly amount of widowed spouse benefits received by the individual. Benefit amounts are calculated based on the worker's average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). See the Social Security Annual Statistical Supplement for details on how benefit calculations are performed. This benefit amount is the total amount paid in the first month of widowed spouse benefits receipt. If the respondent was dually entitled in this month, this benefit amount reflects the total payment made (i.e. the sum of the amounts due to each type of benefit). For example if a person received own and widowed spouse retirement benefits, this benefit amount would be the sum of those two benefits. %12.0g Flag: Marital History Event 1 This variable is the first indicator for whether a respondent was married. Individuals who are never married will have mh1=0. Individuals who were married one or more times will have mh1=1. 0 Never married 1 First marriage occurred Sysmiss Flag: Marital History Event 2 This variable indicates whether a respondent's first marriage ended in widowhood or divorce. This variable is only in universe for individuals with mh1=1. 0 First Marriage did not end over course of survey 1 First marriage ended in widowhood 2 First marriage ended in divorce/separation Sysmiss Flag: Marital History Event 3 This variable indicates whether a respondent entered into a second marriage. This variable is only in universe if mh2 =1 or 2. 0 No second marriage 1 Second marriage occurred Sysmiss Flag: Marital History Event 4 This variable indicates whether a respondent's second marriage ended in widowhood or divorce. Only respondents with mh3=1 are in universe for this variable. 0 Second marriage did not end over course of survey 1 Second marriage ended in widowhood 2 Second marriage ended in divorce/separation Sysmiss Flag: Marital History Event 5 This variable indicates whether a respondent entered into a third marriage. Only individuals with mh4= 1 or 2 are in universe for mh5. 0 No third marriage 1 Third marriage occurred Sysmiss Flag: Marital History Event 6 This variable indicates whether a respondent's third marriage ended in widowhood or divorce. Only respondents with mh5=1 are in universe. 0 Third marriage did not end over course of survey 1 Third marriage ended in widowhood 2 Third marriage ended in divorce/separation Sysmiss Flag: Marital History Event 7 This variable indicates whether respondent entered into a fourth marriage and is in universe only if mh6=1 or 2. The marital history topical module only collects information about up to three marriges, and hence in cases where mh7=1, the fourth marriage occurred over the course of the SIPP panel, after the marital history topical module had been conducted. 0 No fourth marriage 1 Fourth marriage occurred Sysmiss Flag: Marital History Event 8 This variable indicates whether respondent's fourth marriage ended in widowhood or divorce and is only in universe if mh7=1. 0 Fourth marriage did not end over course of survey 1 Fourth marriage ended in widowhood 2 Fourth marriage ended in divorce/separation Sysmiss Date of Marital History Event 1 Date of first marriage in SAS date value format. In universe if mh1=1. Date of Marital History Event 2 Date that first marriage ended in divorce or widowhood. Stored as a SAS date value. Date of Marital History Event 3 Date of beginning of second marriage. Stored as a SAS date value. Date of Marital History Event 4 Date of ending of second marriage. Stored as a SAS date value. Date of Marital History Event 5 Date of beginning of third marriage. Stored as a SAS date value. Date of Marital History Event 6 Date of ending of third marriage. Date of Marital History Event 7 Date of beginning of fourth marriage. Stored as a SAS date value. Date of Marital History Event 8 Date of fourth marriage ending. Stored as a SAS date value. Non-Housing Financial Wealth Non-housing wealth = total wealth minus home equity, collected in the following waves, by panel: Wave 4 in the 1984 (HHTWLTH, HHTHEQ), 1990-1993 (HH_TWLTH, HH_THEQ); Wave 3 in 1996, 2001, & 2004 (THHTWLTH, THHTHEQ) panels; Wave 4 in 2008 panel (THHTWLTH, THHTHEQ). %12.0g Ordinal Number of First Observed Marriage This variable tells which of the marriages described in the marital history variables (mh1-mh8) is the linked marriage. For example, if obs_first_sipp_mar_num=1 then the first marriage is the one observed in the SIPP and the partner from that marriage is the linked spouse. 1 Linked marriage is first reported marriage described by mh1, mh2, mh_date1, and mh_date2 2 Linked marriage is first reported marriage described by mh3, mh4, mh_date3, and mh_date4 3 Linked marriage is first reported marriage described by mh5, mh6, mh_date5, and mh_date6 4 Linked marriage is first reported marriage described by mh7, mh8, mh_date7, and mh_date8 Sysmiss When there is no linked marriage %12.0g SIPP-reported occupation - three categories Occupation is a characteristic of an individual's job and hence varies over time. There are occupation values reported for (potentially) two jobs in each wave of the survey. Occupation is chosen by summing earnings associated with the array of variables ws1occ1-ws1occ{max number of waves} and ws2occ1-ws2occ{max number of waves} in the 1984, 1990-1993 panels, and tjbocc1_1-tjbocc1_{max number of waves) and tjbocc2_1-tjbocc2_{max number of waves} in the 1996-2008 panels and choosing the occupation associated with the greatest total earnings. Thus occupation is the occupation from which greatest earnings are derived in the survey. 1 Managerial and professional specialty occupations 2 Technical, sales, and administrative support occupations 3 Other Sysmiss %12.0g SIPP Occupation - existence This variable indicates whether a person has a valid occupation from a job held during the survey. 0 No, last worked 1984 or earlier, or no valid industry reported 1 Yes %12.0g Own a Home This variable indicates whether an individual owns a home at the time of the wealth topical module in the person's SIPP panel. The wealth topical module is conducted in the following waves by panel: wave 4 in the 1984 & 1990-1993 panels (TM8530, TM8608). In panels 1996-2004, tenure is available for each month of the survey, for this variable (own_home), tenure is defined as tenure during 12th month in the survey (ETENURE), and the universe for the real estate/wealth topical module is defined in wave 3 (EHREUNV). In 2008, ETENURE is also from the 12th month of the survey (ETENURE), and the universe fer the real estate/wealth topical module is defined in wave 4 (EHREUNV). 0 Do not own a home 1 Own a home %12.0g Number of Children Ever Born This variable contains the number of children ever born to a person (i.e. count of biological children). This is taken from the wave two fertility history topical module (TM8752 and TM8754 for 1984, 1990-1993 panels; tfrchl and tmomchl for 1996-2008 panels) and is in universe for men and women ages 15-64. %12.0g SIPP Panel Year

Indicates panel of source record

1984 1990 1991 1992 1993 1996 2001 2004 2008 %12.0g
In-Scope for Pension (Level II) This variable indicates that an individual was in scope for the pension questions because he or she was employed at the time of the pension topical module. The pension topical module is conducted in the following waves by panel: wave 4 in the 1984 panel (TM8324); wave 4 in the 1990 & 1992 panels (TM8324); wave 7 in 1991 panel (TM8324); wave 9 in the 1993 panel (TM6000); wave 7 in the 1996-2004 panels (EARPUNV, RMNJBBS); wave 3 in the 2008 panel (EARPUNV, RMNJBBS). 0 Pension was not in scope 1 Pension was in scope %12.0g SIPP Gold Standard Person ID Personid uniquely identifies individuals within each SSB implicate. Personid does not link records across implicates or to the Gold Standard and Completed Data files. %12.0g PHUS: startdate of aged spouse benefits

This start date variable tells when the first aged spouse benefit payment was recorded in the Payment History Update System, the administrative database maintained by SSA to track actual payments made to beneficiaries. This start date can differ from the MBR start date which records only eligibility and not actual payments. The PHUS began in 1984 and hence the earliest possible start date is January 1984. The latest possible start date is December 2012.

%12.0g
PHUS: total monthly benefit

Total monthly benefit payment as recorded in the Payment History Update System, the administrative database maintained by SSA to track actual payments made to beneficiaries. This benefit amount can differ from the MBR total benefit which records only eligibility and not actual payments. This benefit amount is the total amount paid in the first month of aged spouse benefits receipt. If the respondent was dually entitled in this month, this benefit amount reflects the total payment made (i.e. the sum of the amounts due to each type of benefit). For example if a person received own and aged spouse retirement benefits, this benefit amount would be the sum of those two benefits.

%12.0g
PHUS: startdate of retirement benefits This startdate variable tells when the first own retirement benefit payment was recorded in the Payment History Update System, the administrative database maintained by SSA to track actual payments made to beneficiaries. This startdate can differ from the MBR startdate which records only eligiblity and not actual payments. The PHUS began in 1984 and hence the earliest possible start date is January 1984. The latest possible start date is December 2012. %12.0g PHUS: total monthly benefit Total monthly benefit payment as recorded in the Payment History Update System, the administrative database maintained by SSA to track actual payments made to beneficiaries. This benefit amount can differ from the MBR total benefit which records only eligiblity and not actual payments. This benefit amount is the total amount paid in the first month of own retirement benefits receipt. If the respondent was dually entitled in this month, this benefit amount reflects the total payment made (i.e. the sum of the amounts due to each type of benefit). For example if a person received own and aged spouse retirement benefits, this benefit amount would be the sum of those two benefits. %12.0g PHUS: SSDI benefit start date 1

This start date variable tells when the first SSDI benefit payment was recorded in the Payment History Update System, the administrative database maintained by SSA to track actual payments made to beneficiaries. This start date can differ from the MBR start date which records only eligibility and not actual payments. The PHUS began in 1984 and hence the earliest possible start date is January 1984. The latest possible start date is December 2012.

%12.0g
PHUS: SSDI total monthly benefit k (where k=1 to 4)

Total monthly benefit payment as recorded in the Payment History Update System, the administrative database maintained by SSA to track actual payments made to beneficiaries. This benefit amount can differ from the MBR total benefit which records only eligibility and not actual payments. This benefit amount is the total amount paid in the month k of own SSDI benefits receipt.

%12.0g
PHUS: startdate of widowed spouse benefits

This start date variable tells when the first widowed spouse benefit payment was recorded in the Payment History Update System, the administrative database maintained by SSA to track actual payments made to beneficiaries. This start date can differ from the MBR start date which records only eligibility and not actual payments. The PHUS began in 1984 and hence the earliest possible start date is January 1984. The latest possible start date is December 2012.

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PHUS: total monthly benefit Total monthly benefit payment as recorded in the Payment History Update System, the administrative database maintained by SSA to track actual payments made to beneficiaries. This benefit amount can differ from the MBR total benefit which records only eligiblity and not actual payments. This benefit amount is the total amount paid in the first month of widowed spouse benefits receipt. If the respondent was dually entitled in this month, this benefit amount reflects the total payment made (i.e. the sum of the amounts due to each type of benefit). For example if a person received own and widowed spouse retirement benefits, this benefit amount would be the sum of those two benefits. %12.0g PHUS: indicator of positive benefit amount Indicator that PHUS recorded a positive aged spouse benefit amount (and consequently had a non-missing PHUS startdate) at some point after the MBR eligibility start date. 0 Does not have a positive aged spouse benefit amount 1 Has a positive aged spouse benefit amount %12.0g PHUS: indicator of positive benefit amount

Indicator that the PHUS recorded a positive retirement benefit amount (and consequently had a non-missing PHUS start date) at some point after the MBR eligibility start date.

0 Did not receive a positive retirement benefit amount at some point after MBR eligibility date 1 Received a positive retirement benefit amount at some point after MBR eligibility date %12.0g
PHUS: indicator of positive SSDI benefit amount in month k (where k=1 to 4)

Indicator that the PHUS recorded a positive SSDI benefit amount (and consequently had a non-missing PHUS start date) at some point after the MBR eligibility start date.

0 Did not receive positive SSDI amount 1 Received positive SSDI amount %12.0g
PHUS: indicator of positive benefit amount Indicator that PHUS recorded a positive widowed spouse benefit amount (and consequently had a non-missing PHUS startdate) at some point after the MBR eligibility start date. 0 Did not receive positive widowed spouse benefit 1 Received positive widowed spouse benefit %12.0g Race In the Census-internal SIPP panels, a value for race is included on each wave file. Thus, there are actually as many race variables as there are waves of the survey and some changes occur across waves as a result of data collection error. Race is chosen by creating an array of variables race1-race{max number of waves} and choosing the first non-missing value. Thus race comes from the first wave in which the individual was interviewed instead of from a fixed point in the survey. 1 White 2 Black 3 Other %12.0g Rotation Group Each SIPP panel is divided up into four rotation groups and one rotation group is interviewed each month. This variable classifies each SIPP respondent into a particular rotation group and enables researhers to tell which month a particular respondent was asked the topical module questions. For example, if a person is in the first rotation group of the 1990 panel, his/her wave 1 interview covered January 1990-April 1990 and the wave 2 interview covered May 1990-August 1990. The wave 2 topical modules would have been asked in September 1990 at the time of the wave 2 interview. Schedules for interviewing rotation groups by panel can be found in the SIPP Users' Guide. %12.0g SIPP Panel Begin Date This variable is stored as a SAS date and gives the month and year of the first SIPP reference period for each individual (reference periods always begin on the first day of the month). The start date differs even within panel due to the fact that only one rotation group (1/4 of the sample) is interviewed each month. %12.0g SIPP Panel End Date This variable is stored as a SAS date and gives the month and year of the last month of the last SIPP reference period for each individual (reference periods always end on the last day of the month). The end date differs even within panel due to the fact that only one rotation group (1/4 of the sample) is interviewed each month. %12.0g Personid of spouse Personid of linked spouse, defined as the first person to whom the SIPP respondent was married during the time period covered by the SIPP panel. Individuals could enter the panel already married and then each would be linked to the other. Individuals could also get married during the course of the panel. If this was the first observed marriage for each member of the couple, they were linked together. Individuals could also get divorced during the course of the panel and then remarry. In many cases, this later marriage caused a new individual to join the panel. This new SIPP respondent would only be linked to his or her spouse if the spouse (and original SIPP sample member) had not already been observed married to someone else. If the original SIPP sample member had been previously linked by marriage to another SIPP sample member, this original link was maintained in spouse_personid. However the marital history reflects the ending of this marriage and the occurrence of the next marriage for the original SIPP sample member. Likewise, the new SIPP sample member who joins through marriage will have that marriage date recorded in his or her marital history but will have a blank spouse_personid. In summary, this variable captures only one marriage partner and does not provide a history of marriage partners even if this history is (partially) observed in the SIPP. The link between SIPP respondents and their spouses has not been perturbed in any way in the SSB. The same individuals will be linked as married partners in the Gold Standard, the Completed Data, and the SSB. In order to strengthen confidentiality protection, however, spouse_personid in the SSB does not link records across implicates or to the Gold Standard and Completed Data files, i.e. within each synthetic implicate it is a random number that can only be used for matching spouses within that implicate. SSR: Application date This variable contains the date when the individual applied for SSI benefits and is stored as a SAS date variable. %12.0g SSR: Applied for SSI benefits An indicator for whether the individual has a recorded application for Supplemental Security Income (SSI). 0 Does not have a recorded SSI application 1 Has a recorded SSI application %12.0g SSR: Received SSI benefits An indicator for whether the applicant ever received SSI benefits. 0 Has never received SSI benefits 1 Has received SSI benefits %12.0g SSR: Total federal benefit amount The total SSI benefit amount from federal sources. %12.0g SSR: Benefits ceased

SSI benefits recorded as ceased on the SSR; see SSR: last payment date.

0 SSI benefit has not ceased 1 SSI benefit has ceased %12.0g
SSR: Diagnosis code

This variable contains the diagnostic group for the SSI recipient's primary code for mental or physical disability used in the medical determination of the individual's eligibility for disability benefits.

1 Diseases of the blood 2 Circulatory system 3 Congenital anomalies 4 Digestive system 5 Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases 6 Genitourinary system 7 Infectious and parasitic diseases 8 Injuries 9 Mental disorders 10 Mental retardation 11 Musculoskeletal system 12 Neoplasms 13 Nervous system and sense organs 14 Respiratory system 15 Skin and subcutaneous tissue 16 Other or unknown %12.0g
SSR: First payment date The date of first recorded payment of SSI benefits. This variable is saved as a SAS date. %12.0g SSR: Last payment date

The date of last recorded payment of SSI benefits. This variable is saved as a SAS date.

%12.0g
SSR: Type of benefit

Type of SSI benefit applied for or received by the individual.

1 Aged individual 2 Disabled or blind individual 3 Disabled or blind child %12.0g
State of Residence: FIPS code (modified) State of residence. FIPS State Code for state of residence first recorded in the SIPP. For married couples, we take the state value for both partners at the same point in the survey when we first observed the marriage. For individuals who never have an observed marriage during the panel, we take their first ever reported state value. *All panels prior to 2004 group some states together and give only one code for the group. For these panels, the individual FIPS code will not appear for states contained in a group. 1 Alabama 2 Alaska *see description 4 Arizona 5 Arkansas 6 California 8 Colorado 9 Connecticut 10 Delaware 11 DC 12 Florida 13 Georgia 15 Hawaii 16 Idaho *see description 17 Illinois 18 Indiana 19 Iowa *see description 20 Kansas 21 Kentucky 22 Louisiana 23 Maine *see description 24 Maryland 25 Massachusetts 26 Michigan 27 Minnesota 28 Mississippi *see description 29 Missouri 30 Montana *see description 31 Nebraska 32 Nevada 33 New Hampshire 34 New Jersey 35 New Mexico *see description 36 New York 37 North Carolina 38 North Dakota *see description 39 Ohio 40 Oklahoma 41 Oregon 42 Pennsylvania 44 Rhode Island 45 South Carolina 46 South Dakota *see description 47 Tennessee 48 Texas 49 Utah 50 Vermont *see description 51 Virginia 53 Washington 54 West Virginia *see description 55 Wisconsin 56 Wyoming *see description 61 (1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 2001 panels) Maine, Vermont *see description 62 (1990, 1991, 1992, 1993 panels) Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota (1996, 2001 panels) North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming *see description 63 (1990, 1991, 1992, 1993 panels) Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming *see description 90 (1984 panel only) Idaho, New Mexico, South Dakota, Wyoming *see description 91 (1984 panel only) Mississippi, West Virginia *see description %12.0g Time Period of Arrival to US (Foreign Born) This variable gives the year block when a respondent immigrated in the United States and is in scope when foreign_born=1. The year of arrival to the U.S. is from the migration history wave 2 topical module (TM8736 for 1984, 1990-1993; emoveus 1996-2008). Year blocks are generally five years but are as wide as 9 years and as short as 2 years. Categories are: 1=1959 or earlier; 2=1960-1964; 3=1965-1969; 4=1970-1974; 5=1974-1979; 6=1980-1981; 7=1982-1984; 8=1985-1993; 9=1994-1999; 10=2000-2004; 11=2005-2009; 12=2010-2014 1 Before 1959 2 1960-1964 3 1965-1969 4 1970-1974 5 1975-1979 6 1980-1981 7 1982-1984 8 1985-1993 9 1994-1999 10 2000-2004 11 2005-2009 12 2010-2014 sysmiss Structurally missing, out of scope for question (foreign_born=0) %12.0g DER: Total earnings from FICA-covered jobs Total earnings from all FICA-covered jobs with W-2 or Schedule C (self-employment) filings. These earnings are the sum of amounts from Box 1 (Total Wages, Tips, and Bonuses) and Box 12 (earnings deferred to a 401(k) type account). This array extends from 1978-2011. %12.0g DER: Total earnings from all non-FICA jobs Total earnings from all non-FICA-covered jobs with W-2 or Schedule C (self-employment) filings. These earnings are the sum of amounts from Box 1 (Total Wages, Tips, and Bonuses) and Box 12 (earnings deferred to a 401(k) type account). This array extends from 1978-2011. %12.0g Total Earnings This variable contains total monthly person-level earnings as reported in the SIPP for month M. M goes from 1 to 48 and represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. This includes both job and business (self-employment) earnings and is top-coded. Only the first 24 months of the individual's SIPP panel are in universe. A later release of these data will add months after 24 for longer SIPP panels. Months that are outside the time frame covered by an individual's SIPP panel will always be missing and out of universe. %12.0g SER: Capped Earnings from all FICA-covered jobs Person-level annual earnings that were taxed by FICA; these variables include earnings only up to the FICA taxable maximum and cover the years 1951-2011. These earnings are the inputs for calculating the OASDI benefit a person and his or her spouse will receive upon retirement or disability. Total Usual Weekly Hours Worked at All Jobs Total number of usual weekly hours worked at all regular employment jobs in month M. M represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. Only the first 24 months of the individual's SIPP panel are in universe. A later release of these data will add months after 24 for longer SIPP panels. Months that are outside the time frame covered by an individual's SIPP panel will always be missing and out of universe. %12.0g Total Personal Income

Total personal income summed from all sources in month M. M represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. Only the first 24 months of the individual's SIPP panel are in universe for panels 1984, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 2001. Panels 1996 and 2008 go up to month 48 and panel 2004 goes up to month 36. A later release of these data will add months after 24 for longer SIPP panels. Months that are outside the time frame covered by an individual's SIPP panel will always be missing and out of universe.

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Total Net Worth Total net worth as reported in the wealth topical module, collected in the following waves, by panel: Wave 4 in the 1984 (HHTNW) & 1990-1993 (HH_TNW) panels; Wave 3 in 1996, 2001, & 2004 (THHTNW) panels; Wave 4 in 2008 panel (THHTNW). %12.0g Amount of veterans compensation or pension benefit This variable is the amount of veterans compensation or pension benefits that a respondent received in month M. M goes from 1 to 48 and represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. The variable comes from the core file. I08AMT1-I08AMT4 in 1984; S08AMT in the 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993 panels; T08AMT in the 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008 panels. %12.0g Indicator for receipt of veterans compensation or pension benefits This variable indicates that a respondent received veterans compensation or pension benefits in month M. M goes from 1 to 48 and represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. The variable comes from the core file. I08REC1-I08REC4 in 1984; R08 in the 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993 panels; ER08 in the 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008 panels. 0 Did not receive veterans compensation or veterans benefits 1 Received veterans compensation or veterans benefits Amount of Workers Compensation Received This variable is the amount of workers compensation benefits that a respondent received in this month and year. The variable comes from the core file. I10AMT1-I10AMT4 in 1984; S10AMT in the 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993 panels; T10AMT in the 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008 panels. %12.0g Indicator for receipt of workers compensation This variable indicates that a respondent received workers compensation benefits in month M. M goes from 1 to 48 and represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. The variable comes from the core file. I10REC1-I10REC4 in 1984; R10 in the 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993 panels; ER10 in the 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008 panels. 0 Did not receive workers compensation benefits 1 Received workers compensation benefits Weeks at a Job

Total number of weeks that the respondent held a job in month M. M represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. Only the first 24 months of the individual's SIPP panel are in universe for panels 1984, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 2001. Panels 1996 and 2008 go up to month 48 and panel 2004 goes up to month 36. A later release of these data will add months after 24 for longer SIPP panels. Months that are outside the time frame covered by an individual's SIPP panel will always be missing and out of universe.

Weeks With Pay

Total number of weeks worked with pay in month M. M represents the month number since the start of panel_1stfullyear. Only the first 24 months of the individual's SIPP panel are in universe for panels 1984, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 2001. Panels 1996 and 2008 go up to month 48 and panel 2004 goes up to month 36. A later release of these data will add months after 24 for longer SIPP panels. Months that are outside the time frame covered by an individual's SIPP panel will always be missing and out of universe.

SER: Annual Total Covered Quarters of Work Indicates the total number of quarters of FICA-covered work in year YYYY, where YYYY=1951-2011. In 2011, an individual received credit for one quarter of coverage for every $ he/she earned at a FICA-covered job in the year. In 1978, $250 was required in order to be credited one quarter of coverage. This number increases automatically each year and is tied to increases in average wages. A maximum of 4 quarters per year is possible. Quarters of coverage are used to calculate eligibility for OASDI benefits. For example, people who reached age 62 in 2011 were eligible to retire if they had at least 40 quarters of coverage. The number of quarters of coverage required to be fully insured has changed over time. See http://www.socialsecurity.gov/history/reports/crsleghist2.html for a summary of rules. Prior to 1978, a quarter of coverage was granted for every quarter of the calendar year in which the worker had at least $50 in earnings at a FICA-covered job. Hence the portion of this array from 1951-1977 provides more detail about whether a worker was employed throughout the year. However caution should be used when looking at these earlier years as far fewer jobs were FICA-covered and hence zero quarters of coverage does not mean the person as not employed but rather that the person was not employed by a job that required FICA taxes or made the person eligible for OASDI benefits. 0 1 2 3 4 Year of Bachelors Degree This variable contains the year the respondent finished his/her bachelor's degree. This information comes from the education history topical module, conducted in wave 2 of each panel. Individuals must have educ_5cat=4 to be in scope for this variable. %12.0g Year Began Post-HS Education This variable gives the year that post-high school education began and comes from the wave 2 Education and Training History topical module (variable TM8420 for 1984, 1990-1993 panels; variable tcollstr for 1996-2008 panels). This variable is in scope if educ_5cat is 3 or greater. Sysmiss - Structurally missing (educ_5cat=1 or educ_5cat=2) %12.0g Year Ended HS (or less) Education This variable gives the year that high school education ended and comes from the wave 2 Education and Training History topical module (variable TM8404 and TM8412 for 1984, 1990-1993 panels; variable tlstschl and thsyr for 1996-2008 panels). This variable is in scope for all levels of educ_5cat. %12.0g Year Ended Post-HS Education This variable gives the year that post-high school education ended and comes from the wave 2 Education and Training History topical module (variables TM8426 and TM8440 for 1984, 1990-1993 panels; variables tlastcol, tvocyr, tassocyr, tbachyr, and tadvncyr for 1996-2008 panels). This variable is in scope if educ_5cat is 3 or greater. Sysmiss - Structurally missing (educ_5cat=1 or educ_5cat=2) %12.0g